Biography of Julian Tuwim
Julian Tuwim (September 13, 1894 – December 27, 1953) (the surname comes from the Hebrew טובים - «tovim» - good); was one of the greatest Polish poets, born in Łódź Poland, and educated in Łódź and Warsaw where he studied law and philosophy at Warsaw University. In 1919 Tuwim co-founded the Skamander group of experimental poets with Antoni Słonimski and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. He was a major figure in Polish literature, and was also known also for his contribution to children's literature.
In 1939, at the beginning of World War II and Nazi Germany's occupation of Poland, Tuwim emigrated first through Romania to France, and after France’s capitulation, to Brazil, by way of Portugal, and finally to the USA, where he settled in 1942. In 1939-41 he collaborated with the émigré weekly «Wiadomosci Polskie», but broke off the collaboration due to differences in views on the attitude towards the Soviet Union. In 1942-46 he worked with the monthly &quot;Nowa Polska&quot; published in London, and with leftist Polish-American newspapers. He was affiliated with the Polish section of the International Workers Organization from 1942. He was also a member of the Association of Writers From Poland (a member of the board in 1943).
During this time he wrote «Kwiaty Polskie» (Polish Flowers), an epic poem in which he remembers with nostalgia his early childhood in Łódź. In April 1944 he published a manifesto, entitled «My, Żydzi Polscy» (We, The Polish Jews). Tuwim's grave in Warsaw's Powązki Cemetery.
Tuwim returned to Poland after the war, in 1946, but was not able to create under the communism system. Under pressure he produced a few low quality texts to pacify the regime. Some of his late poems of better quality, which he kept to himself, were found among his belongings after the poet's death.
Although Tuwim was well known for serious poetry he also wrote poetry for children and satirical works, for example «Lokomotywa» (Locomotive) (1938, tr. 1940). Tuwim along with Jan Brzechwa are the two most famous authors of children's poetry in Polish. He also wrote well-regarded translations of Pushkin and other Russian poets. Russian Soviet poet Yelizaveta Tarakhovskaya translated most of Tuwim's children's poetry into Russian.