Jakub Chlebowski - Biography
Professor Dr. Jakub Chlebowski or Jakob Chlebowski (born on 3 May 1905 in Liwenhof in Latvia, died on 25 January 1969 in Israel) was an esteemed Polish Jewish professor and doctor, scientist, researcher, lecturer, author, philanthropist, Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the Medical Academy in Bialystok, Poland (now the Medical University of Bialystok).
Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Montpellier in France. Author of dozens of scientific and research papers in French, German and Polish, and three ground-breaking medical textbooks.
A graduate of the University of Vilnius in 1929. In the 1930s Chlebowski worked at the Department of Internal Diseases in Vilnius. During World War II he was arrested by the Soviets and exiled to the depths of the Soviet Union, in Komi and Krasnodarze - and in the Siberian camp, as a prisoner, worked as a doctor treating other prisoners despite the poorest conditions, and with little medicine and supplies, earning the respect of senior Russian officers. Prof. Dr. Chlebowski returned to Poland in 1945 following the war.
After the war Chlebowski was employed by the Klinik Internal Diseases in Kraków and Lodz, and by Habilitował in Lodz in 1948.
From 1951 Chlebowski became involved in the founding of a new medical university in Bialystok, now the Medical University in Bialystok, and was appointed Professor of Medicine and Director of the Department of Internal Diseases. In 1954 he earned a professorial.
In 1953 Chlebowski stood up for one of his university students, who was removed from school at the request of the Board for concealing his connection with the an underground anti-Hitler movement. During deliberations by the Appeals Board, Prof. Dr. Chlebowski was the only executive member who stood in defense of the university student.
Between 1957 and 1959 Chlebowski held the prestigious functions of Vice-Rector of the Medical Academy in Bialystok, and between 1959 and 1962 he was honoured with the appointment of Rector.
Chlebowski was removed from the university during "the March events." on 22 April 1968 at an openly held party gathering, attended by all university staff and students. The documentation from the Medical Academy in Bialystok (the college PZPR letter dated 23 April 1968) reads as follows:
"The Committee Campus Polish United Workers' Party of the Academy of Medicine in Bialystok, after consideration of the matter on 22 April 1968, seek a request to the National Minister of Health, by his Magnificent Rector of the local university professor on the appeal of Dr. Jakob Chlebowski, the position of Head of the Department of Internal Diseases of the Medical Academy in Bialystok, because of his hostile attitude of the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union."
On 16 October 1968 Chlebowski and his family (wife Tamar Chlebowski, a dentist, and only daughter) emigrated to Israel. On 25 January 1969, Chlebowski died in a car accident by a motorist whilst crossing the street.
In 1990 the Medical Academy in Bialystok and various authorities took the action of honoring the memory of Chlebowski and rectifying their actions of 1968. The University senate unanimously adopted a resolution condemning the decision to remove Chlebowski from the university.
A lecture hall at the State Hospital has been named Clinical Professor. Dr. Jacob Chlebowskiego, and a bronze plaque has been placed commemorating the great patron.
In 1996, the Medical Academy in Bialystok held a solemn meeting at the Białostockiego Department of Internal Polish Society to honor their great professor.
Chlebowski was awarded The Order Odrodzenia Polski (Order of Poland Reborn), one of Poland's highest civilian orders, conferred for outstanding achievements in the fields of education, science, sport, culture and arts.
In 2005, to honor the centenary of Chlebowski's birth, the Academy of Medicine in Bialystok awarded its first, and now annual, prize, in hnor of Chlebowski, to the top medical graduate student at the Medical Academy in Bialystok. This prize was founded, and is sponsored, by Chlebowski's daughter, Dr. Irena Chlebowska-Bennett, an eye specialist who now lives in Sydney, Australia with her husband and two sons. The first laureate was awarded to Magdalena Mlonek, dentist, and handed her prize in person by Dr. Irena Chlebowska-Bennett on campus during a ceremony held on 25 November 2005 in high Auli Medical University of Bialystok.
Polonia Restituta has described Chlebowski as "an institution whose principles are now tended by large numbers of his colleagues and students". "He came to Bialystok in 1951, young and quickly took over the management of the Academy of Medical Clinic - Interior Diseases. His long and hard day begun primarily as lecturer and moved to research and clinical practice. The Professor had a great ability to teach complex medical principles, which he later elevated to a higher level of complex medical findings, including through scientific work" says Professor Jan Stasiewicz. Professor Stasiewicz goes on to say "short descriptions and memories alone cannot reflect all the achievements, merits and successes the Professor and Chancellor of the Academy of Medical Sciences had, there were simply too many. The most important, that even today his disciples and students often say: "Explore, as he Chlebowski" or "if you fail to treat your patient as Chlebowski would have, you have no chance to successfully treat them", and most notable, "Chlebowski's medical ethics were not just slogans, they were simply his principle way of working".
- The application of Perkal's discriminating function to differential diagnosis
- Some aspects of the carbohydrate metabolism in the obese (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1969;42(3):355-8)
- Heparin and protease inhibitors in the prevention of experimental acute pancreatic necrosis in dogs (Digestion. 1969;2(1):7-16)
- Influence of insulin and vasopressin on potassium distribution in tissues (Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 1968;9:133-7. French)
- Influence of insulin and vasopressin on sodium distribution in tissues (Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 1968;9:125-31. French)
- Studies on sigmoid colon activity in diabetes and hyperthyroidism (Pol Med Sci Hist Bull. 1968 Jan;11(1):34-7)
- Mathematical discrimination of glycemic curves in obesity, hypertension and myocardial infarction (Pol Med J. 1968;7(4):817-24)
- Studies on the effect of insulin on the cell membrane of blood cells (Wiad Lek. 1968 Jan 1;21(1):29-33. Polish)
- Principles of dietetic treatment of diabetes according to physiopathologic data (Wiad Lek. 1968 Jan 1;21(1):29-33. Polish)
- Sigmography and its application in various endocrine disorders (J Med Bord. 1967 May;144(5):685-96. French)
- Mathematical evaluation of glycemic curves after chlorothiazide administration (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):219-27. Polish)
- Effect of insulin and other hormones on penetration of cobalt ion and vitamin B 12 into liver cells (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):175-80. Polish)
- Mathematical discrimination of glycemic curves in obesity, hypertension and myocardial infarction (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):143-50. Polish)
- Studies on the effect of insulin on the cellular membranes of the morphologic elements of blood (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):139-42. Polish)
- Sigmographic studies in certain endocrine diseases (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):131-7. Polish)
- Sigmographic studies in diabetic enteropathies and blood sugar variations (Wien Z Inn Med. 1967;48(9):348-52. German)
- 15th anniversary of the II Clinic of Internal Diseases of the Medical Academy in Białystok (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1967;39(2):113-6. Polish)
- Trial of Sjögren's syndrome treatment with arechin (Resochin) (Pol Tyg Lek. 1966 Jun 27;21(26):997-8. Polish)
- Studies on diabetic enteropathy (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1966;37(3):263-6. Polish)
- Enteropathia diabetica (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1966;37(3):253-6. Review. Polish)
- ATYPICAL DIABETIC COMA. 2 CASE REPORTS (Wiad Lek. 1965 Mar 1;18:425-7. Polish)
- PATHOGENESIS OF PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1964;34:1401-3. Polish)
- EXCRETION OF UROPEPSIN AND 17-KETOSTEROIDS IN PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1963;33:863-8. Polish)
- CASE OF WALDENSTROM'S MACROGLOBULINEMIA. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF PARAGLOBULINEMIA (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1963;33:407-12. Polish)
- Effect of action of insulin on oscillometric changes (Pol Tyg Lek (Wars). 1957 Jun 24;12(26):999-1000. Polish)
- Attempted clarification of pathogenesis and hazards of peptic ulcer in circulatory insufficiency (Pol Tyg Lek (Wars). 1957 May 13;12(20):762-4. Polish)
- Primary erythroblastosis (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1957;27(4):533-40. Polish)
- Clinical diagnosis of intestinal infarction (Pol Tyg Lek (Wars). 1956 Oct 15;11(42):1799-802. Polish)
- Method of quantitative determination of ketone bodies in urine applicable in clinical practice (Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1956;26(7):1119-20. Polish)
- Clinical importance of the division of lung abscesses into acute and chronic (Przegl Lek. 1955 Jun 24;11(6):161-3. Polish)
- Moniliasis (Przegl Lek. 1955;11(7):198-201. Polish)
- About Adverse cardiovascular diseases, with a manual (1953)
- Basic knowledge of nutrition, a manual (1952)
- Outline of education of the diseases of internal manual (1956)
Sources and references
- Memory, a report by Gabriela Walczak Radio Bialystok in 2008
- Danuta Ślósarskiej interview with Irena Chlebowska-Bennett "Something for my dad" in the monthly Bialystok Medical Academy Bialystok, Doc Bialostocki December 2005, No. 12 (35) ISSN 1643-3734)
- Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information 
- Source: Wiki Polish "http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakub_Chlebowski"
- Source: Wiki French "http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakub_Chlebowski"
- Source: "http://www.springerlink.com/content/u81kk374w5l61030/fulltext.pdf"